Some letters, like“q” and“c”, are totally missing from Gregg; there isn’t any sound for “c” besides those currently represented by “k” and “s”. Having said that, you can find typical phonemes in English—“sh”, “th”, “ch”—that need a variety of letters when you look at the Roman alphabet, but can each be written having a solitary letter in Gregg. “Though,” which, in longhand, requires six complex symbols strung as well as seven short ligatures, is rendered with two brief shots in Gregg: “th-o.” But Gregg goes further, eliding unstressed vowels and unvoiced consonants to make it to the phonetic nugget of this word: “bed” is written as “b-d”; “act” as “a-k”; “done” as “d-n”. This economy of spelling saves another 10 % associated with the note-taker’s time.
However the impact that is biggest from Gregg shorthand arises from its systematic way of abbreviation. By way of example, nearly every page in Gregg, authored by it self, represents a word that is common. Some are employed for a few words that are different with respect to the context. Our Gregg friend “b” can suggest “be”, “by”, or “but”. The Gregg letter “r” can mean “are”, “our”, or “hour.” The Gregg letter “t” can indicate “it” or “at.” This way, almost 100 of the very common terms in English may be rendered in a solitary swing. Likewise, most frequent English terms have actually an abbreviated spelling of 1 or two shots. The elegant Gregg form of “b-r,” for example, is quick for “bring” and it is printed in an instantaneous. right Here it really is once again:
And, since 60 % of talked English is made up of about 600 among these typical terms, brief forms play a role that is huge accelerating Gregg. “Brief type” is really a term that is technical Gregg. Anybody can discover the Gregg alphabet in a day and most likely increase their speed that is writing in order to become certainly fast—like the residual couple of Gregg-powered court reporters within the federal courts whom defeat testimony at a lot more than 200 terms per minute—you need certainly to memorize dozens or a huge selection of common abbreviations.
That sounds difficult as you needed them until you remember that your head is chock-a-block with common English abbreviations, most of which you learned organically. Gregg is not any various. Together with Gregg variations have reached minimum more systematic, so that they accrue quickly.
Nevertheless the form that is brief a lot more than a easy abbreviation, it is the distillation regarding the fundamental premise of shorthand: never ever compose a lot more than is important to know it later on. By using this principle, large number of long, Latinate terms are reduced to 3 or four letters in Gregg: “a-b-a-nd” for “abandon,” “h-u-nd” for hundred, “n-a-sh” for “nation.” Brief types had been particularly essential in the polysyllabic lexicons of medicine and law—fields that, not coincidentally, had been additionally epicenters of shorthand in Gregg’s heyday.
One approach that is especially fertile abbreviation in Gregg could be the utilization of solitary letters as stand-ins for typical prefixes or suffixes, dependent on whether they’re written before or following the terms they modify. As prefixes, these letters could be either attached with or detached through the term. As an example, a detached “g,” written right before and above a word represents “grand,” as in “grandmother,” but additionally such as “grandiloquent,” and even “granular” (that can easily be written “g” above “l-r.”)
Having said that, an attached “k” at the start of a term could possibly be the prefixes “con,” “com,” or “count;” therefore “k-g” is pronounced “cong,” and it is the brief type for Congress. But a detached “k” written above a term may be the prefix “counter” or “contra”; therefore “k” written over a “b”, as an example, is read “contrib” and is the quick type for “contribute” or “contribution.”
It’s much exactly the same with suffixes. A“g that is detached at the finish of a term represents “gram,” as with “program.” A detached “k” stands for “ical,” as with “medical.” And a“o” that is detached the spot of “ology,” as in “biology.”
These kinds may also be added together to create longer words.
“Biological” is created “b-i” accompanied by a detached “o-k.” In this manner, very long, complex terms are paid down to 2 or 3 fast flicks for the pen, yet stay entirely legible to anybody who understands the Gregg system. Combined, the brief types and the abbreviation concept take into account about 50 % of Gregg’s benefit over longhand. Not merely will be the letters simple and simply joined up with, you can find less of these to create.
The element that is final makes Gregg therefore blazingly fast is a technique called “phrasing.” That way, numerous expressions that are common be dashed down in some shots without ever raising the pen through the web web page. Each of that can easily be written individually with an individual letter: “i,” written with a brief, right, upward stroke that slopes to your right, represents “it;” “l,” an extended, horizontal, upward-facing bend, represents “will;” and, as we’ve seen, “b,” the long, downward curving swing, represents “be. as an example, the expression “it will be” consists of three common words” Phrasing allows you to join all three among these letters in one single elegant, continuous form—“i-l-b”—that takes significantly less than a quarter-second to publish.
Listed here is “it would be” in the very first line, with “We have been” below it:
And you will find literally several thousand these expressions in Gregg shorthand. Above all, unlike brief kinds, they don’t require much memorization; they’re the item of the few easy guidelines.
By the right time he passed away, in 1949, Gregg presided over an empire that reached from their headquarters on Fifth Avenue in Manhattan into nearly every college, company and courthouse in the united states. While he had been fundamentally developmental psychology research topics a publishing magnate—Gregg Publishing put away hundreds of textbooks, dictionaries, research guides, publications, and shorthand variations of traditional literature—John Robert Gregg additionally oversaw a commercial infrastructure of official official certification agencies, company schools, and testing facilities that endorsed the relevant skills of most shorthand that is professional. In the event that you wished to be an administrator secretary, you required a certification from Gregg saying you qualified at 150 terms each and every minute. You had to demonstrate you could write an astonishing 225 words per minute with better than 98 percent accuracy if you wanted to be a court reporter. Entirely, thousands of people passed away through Gregg training in addition to Gregg official official certification system.
For pretty much a century, Gregg ended up being a crucial element of us culture. Because recently as the 1970s, nearly every senior school in the nation taught Gregg. Definitely, every company school & most universities offered shorthand that is gregg-certified. But Gregg’s decrease started whenever McGraw-Hill purchased Gregg Publishing, soon after John Robert Gregg’s death. The rise of stenography devices into the 1940s and 1950s steadily drove shorthand through the courtroom (though there are a small number of “pen article writers” within the federal court system). The Dictaphone along with other recording products made note that is verbatim less and less essential in any office. Plus some people state improvements in women’s rights additionally played a job into the decrease of Gregg. In a period if they had been rejected jobs in areas such as the legislation or medication, the smartest, many skilled females usually wound up as secretaries or administrator assistants and became gifted shorthand professionals. Those left behind never became quite as fast or skilled at the complexities of Gregg in the 1960s and 1970s, as these women began to move on to better opportunities.
The genuine death knell for Gregg, though, had been the arrival of this computer within the 1980s. Also high-level professionals no much longer dictated letters with their secretaries; they published them themselves on their desktop computers. Businesses which used to own ratings of skilled shorthand writers eliminated their steno swimming pools completely. Today, i am perhaps perhaps not alert to any senior school that teaches Gregg. It really is nearly impossible to get it taught in colleges—with two exceptions in Kingsborough and Queensborough community colleges in new york, where Gregg authors will always be prized by some glove that is white companies. The book that is only posted by the Gregg Division of McGraw-Hill could be the Gregg handbook, an workplace reference which contains no reference to shorthand.
But, being a technology for composing fast with pen and paper—still a fundamental ability for reporters like me—Gregg shorthand hasn’t been surpassed. Nowadays, you may need to buy a vintage Gregg manual on e-Bay and show your self, but even although you just discover the rules, Gregg will likely double your note using rate. With repetition and day-to-day usage, it is quite normal to attain rates of 100 terms one minute or maybe more. And, paradoxically, shorthand is the complement that is perfect the twenty-first Century technology regarding the smartpen.
In the end, shorthand—at minimum my shorthand—isn’t foolproof. Despite the fact that, for brief stretches, I’m able to compose 120 terms each minute, the normal United states now talks at significantly more than 150 terms one minute, therefore one thing is inevitably lost into the interpretation. With my trusty Sky smartpen, however, we don’t need to worry. More often than not, once I circumvent to writing the tale, i will depend on my notes that are handwritten brief quotes and back ground information. However when we need a lengthier, verbatim quote, i could utilize my records as a type of index to get the right area of the interview, and tap there with my pen to know the playback. Forget about regarding the forward/reverse party with an electronic recorder when it’s time for you to transcribe. It is a system that is almost flawless.