MLA in-text citation

MLA in-text citation

This site defines the format that is correct in-text citations in MLA:

Fundamental structure

When you’ve got utilized a supply within an project it is crucial to credit the origin for your reader. Realise why guide? For the good reasoned explanations why this is really important.

This credit seems in 2 places: in the body of this assignment (the citation that is in-text as well as the conclusion of this project (when you look at the range of works cited). For virtually any citation that is in-text should always be a matching entry into the range of works cited, and vice versa. The in-text citation contains fundamental information on the foundation:

  • The origin’s author(s)
  • The web page quantity

The menu of works cited contains more step-by-step details about the origin: the name, publishing details, etc.

An in-text citation appears such as this:

Billy has the capacity to connect with other people along with his sound (Vonnegut 36).

Observe that the stop that is full comes following the closing bracket, and therefore just the household title (final title) associated with writer can be used. Unlike APA, there’s absolutely no comma involving the page and author quantity.

The writer’s name can additionally be included into a phrase when you look at the project, in which particular case it really is relocated outside of the brackets:

Vonnegut defines Billy’s power to connect with other people along with his vocals (36).

An in-text citation is needed if you purchased information, a few ideas, principles, or facts from another supply. You need to provide an in-text citation if you have paraphrased, summarised or quoted another author.

Often a source shall have significantly more than one writer, no writer, or no web web page figures. See elements that are referencing what you should do during these circumstances.

Numerous authors

In cases where a supply has two writers, cite the authors final names in your order these are typically provided when you look at the supply. Individual the names that are last an ‘and’.

(Smith and Jones 23).

In case a supply has 3 or higher writers, then supply the very first writers final title but change the other authors with et al. (et al. means and other people in Latin). This relates to both citations that are in-text the works cited list.

(Burdick et al. 3)

Note: then also cite the first initial of these authors if two authors are cited with the same last name.

Numerous sources by one writer

Often you shall want to cite a couple of sources by one writer.

In this scenario, a shortened form of the name (usually the very first few terms) is included with the in-text citation to tell apart the various sources. The abbreviated title should start out with the term that the name is alphabetized by into the works cited list. Place shortened titles of self-contained sources or perhaps the container ( ag e.g. book, journal name), in italics and place the shortened name of articles in quote marks. The abbreviated name should be separated through the writer with a comma.

(Peake, Titus Groan 94, Gormenghast 2, and “Boy in Darkness” 35).

Both the writer’s title therefore the shortened name can be included into a phrase into the project, in which particular case they don’t really should be duplicated within the brackets:

Peake, in Titus Groan, defines Swelter as “a dappled amount of hot obscure whiteness and of a grey that dissolved into swamps of midnight” (33).

Quotations and block quotations

Direct quotations are often placed inside quotation markings (“ ”), accompanied by the guide:

Billy’s vocals is referred to as “a gorgeous tool” (Vonnegut 36).

No quotation marks are used, and the quotation is indented instead if a quotation is longer than 4 lines of prose or 3 lines of verse. Note: with indented quotes, the last punctuation mark ( e.g. complete end) is after the word that is concluding of estimate and prior to the citation:

Vonnegut plainly establishes Billy’s energy of oration:

Billy launched their lips, and away arrived a deep, resonant tone. Their sound had been an instrument that is gorgeous. It told jokes which brought along the home. It grew severe, told jokes once again, and ended for a note of humility. The reason of this wonder had been this: Billy had taken a program in presenting and public speaking. (36)

Brief verse quotations (3 lines or less) can be contained in text (just like prose) having a slash that is forward/) to point where in actuality the line break is.

Quotations must certanly be just like the source that is original many tiny modifications could be made. See quoting for details.

Title in writer place

In a few sources no person or team writer is detailed. This could be real for magazine/newspaper articles, website pages and encyclopГ¦dia entries. Within these circumstances, a shortened type of the foundation’s name (frequently just a few terms) can be used as opposed to the writer when you look at the in-text citation:

(“Writing for television”)

In the event that name is with in quote markings into the directory of works cited it should be in quote markings here. In the event that name is italicised when you look at the a number of works cited (in other words. a self-contained supply or the origin container) it must be in italics here. A full page quantity could be included, after the normal guidelines. See elements that are referencing details.

Reference inside a source (secondary supply)

Numerous scholastic books and log articles quote early in the day publications or articles regarding the topic that is same. If you fail to access the initial supply (age.g. it really is away from print, or unavailable through the collection), it is possible to cite the additional source rather:

As Shakespeare stated, “Sweets to the sweet” (qtd. in White 109).

In this instance, the quoted source (the initial source) is Shakespeare. The quoting source (the additional supply) is White. The source that is original mentioned first, followed closely by ‘qtd. in’ (for “quoted in”) after which the additional supply.

It only appears in the in-text citation, not in the list of works cited because you have not viewed the original source (Shakespeare. The additional supply (White) should come in record of works cited, in accordance with the normal structure for that variety of supply.

If a complete article or chapter happens to be reproduced precisely an additional supply (photocopied, as an example), you can easily cite the first supply and dismiss the additional supply. See Massey University publications of readings for details.

Sources with multiple editions

Often works that arage literarye.g. Shakespeare) have now been posted several times and are also available much more than one version. In cases like this it really is beneficial to offer information that is extra addition to (or often as opposed to) page figures to simply help visitors find the foundation. More information might be chapter, paragraph, work, line or section figures. When you offer extra information, supply the web web page quantity first using the information that is extra having a semi-colon.

(Wollstonecraft 185; ch. 13, sec. 2)

Numerous sources within the brackets that are same

If you’d like to add many different citations in one single pair of brackets, they must be divided by way of a semi-colon:

(White 109; Vonnegut 36; Peake 33)

Recommendations and reading that is further

MLA Handbook. 8th that is ed Language Association, 2016. Massey Library link

The MLA Style Centre. Contemporary Language Association, 2018,


These pages are supplied as helpful tips to proper referencing. Your program, division, college, or institute may recommend conventions that are specific and their suggestions supersede these directions. When you have concerns maybe perhaps perhaps not covered right right here, sign in the style guide mentioned above, pose a question to your course coordinator, or ask at Academic Q+A.

Web Page authorised by Director, CTL final updated on 17 October, 2019

Academic Q+A

Have actually a report or project composing question? Ask a professional at Academic Q+A